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Wave Division Multiplexing-WDM's- WDM-DWDM-Dense Wave Division Multiplexing-CWDM- CWDM Switches

Wavelength Division Multiplexing -WDM-is a method of transmitting data from different sources over the same fiber optic link at the same time whereby each data channel is carried on its own unique wavelengthover a fiber optic cable.Typically WDM is using to increase signalling and bandwidth capacity over singlemode fiber optic cable, The result is a link with an aggregate bandwidth that increases with the number of wavelengths employed. In this way WDM technology can maximize the use of the fiber optic infrastructure that is available; what would normally require two or more fiber links instead requires only one. Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) combines up to 64 wavelengths onto a single fiber. DWDM technology uses an ITU standard 100GHz or 200GHz spacing between the wavelengths, arranged in several bands at ~1500-1600nm. With DWDM technology, the wavelengths are close together (compared to CWDM), meaning that transponders are generally more complex and expensive than CWDM. However, with DWDM, the advantage is a much higher density of wavelengths, and also longer distances, especially with MRV's low dispersion solution for the Fiber Driver-LD system.

WDM technology is made up of a number of building blocks. When put together into a network, these blocks provide a complete solution for multi-wavelength services, and bandwidth enhancement over a single or dual fiber strand..

Some WDM Components include....

WDM-LC-MU CablesSFP Pluggables

and chassis

Singlemode MRV WDM Pluggable SFP's

 

WDM Distance-Optical Budgets

Optical Budget
With most WDM systems, the key to distance is calculating optical budget (the amount of light on the fiber). There are several key parameters that affect the optical budget:

Transmit Power: how much power is transmited by the laser
Receive Sensitivity: how much power the receiver needs in order to have valid signal
Transit Loss: loss along the fiber-optic cable (per km)
Insertion Loss: loss across a multiplexer when inserting the channel into a trunk
Pass thru Loss: loss accross an add-drop multiplexer for a trunk signal passing through
Removal Loss: loss accross a demultiplexer when removing the channel from the trunk

Transmit Power:

How much power is transmited by the laser
Receive Sensitivity: how much power the receiver needs in order to have valid signal
Transit Loss: loss along the fiber-optic cable (per km)
Insertion Loss: loss across a multiplexer when inserting the channel into a trunk
Passthru Loss: loss accross an add-drop multiplexer for a trunk signal passing through
Removal Loss: loss accross a demultiplexer when removing the channel from the trunk

Dispersion:
Even when the optical budget is within the parameters of the optical power, there is another issue to consider, which is dispersion (the spreading out of light along a fiber). CWDM systems are typically limited by optical budget to around 100km. DWDM systems, due to higher power and better sensitivity, can operate to 200km typically, and are limited by dispersion. MRV provides low dispersion DWDM modules with the Fiber Driver-LD product over 600km.

WDM technology is made up of a number of building blocks. When put together into a network, these blocks provide a complete solution for multi-wavelength services, and bandwidth enhancement over a single or dual fiber strand.

Add/Drop & Multiplexing: For Flash Demo

Multiplexing is the process of combining several data streams operating at unique wavelengths on several fibers onto a single fiber "trunk". Demultiplexing is just the opposite, taking a fiber trunk and separating it into individual fibers, each transporting a different wavelength signal.

An Add/Drop Multiplexer takes a single wavelength from a trunk, pulls the signal out, and allows a new signal at the same wavelength to be inserted into the trunk at (roughly) the same spot. All the other wavelengths pass through the add/drop mux with only a small loss of power (usually a few dB).

This concept is especially important when planning WDM networks, and plays an important role in the overall distance a WDM network can span.

Sub-Rate Multiplexing: For Flash Demo

Sub-rate Multiplexing is the process of placing several data streams onto a single wavelength, in an effort to further increase the number of data streams in a WDM system. There are several mechanisms of sub-rate multiplexing:
TDM - Time Domain Multiplexing (SONET and many proprietary versions)
FDM - Frequency Domain Multiplexing (e.g., QAM)
Statistical Multiplexing (Ethernet or other Layer-2)

This example shows how multiple channels of ESCON can be converted with the Fiber Driver-LD ESCON Solution into a single wavelength before wave division multiplexing, allowing up to 64 ESCON channels on a 16 wavelength CWDM system, or hundreds of ESCON channels using DWDM. The LD product also offers 2-Port Gigabit Ethernet Multiplexing modules.

Cross-Connects: For Flash Demo

A cross-connect is a device that allows an administrator to select which port will have a connection to which other port or ports. This example shows the configurability of the NC316-XP Media Cross Connect. Cross-connects have several uses in WDM systems:
Fault-tolerant links - a cross-connect can be programmed to switch from a primary to a secondary link on the event of a loss of optical power (or other signals), allowing a simple means of creating protection-switching. With SFP-based cross-connects, this function operates in the same device as the transponder.


Reconfigurable networks - a cross-connect can be configured and re-configured depending on the needs of the network. This programming can be set by time-of-day as well to maximize the appropriate utilization of the wavelengths. For example, 3 wavelengths may be used during the day for data, 1 for storage, but at night and on weekends, during massive backup operations, two of the wavelengths can be switched to storage usage.


Trunk switching - a cross-connect can be programmed to configure several 'colored' SFP ports at the same time, so that, if these ports are all connected to the same Mux/Demux, the cross-connect acts as a trunk-switch, allowing the whole trunk (that is, the whole set of wavelengths) to move to a different fiber.

Pluggables WDM Products

With the combined benefits of SFP interfaces, multi-rate, multi-port transponders and passive Mux/Demux technology incorporated into a modular, 'building block' architecture, the Fiber Driver Pluggable Modular WDM system delivers an unprecedented level of WDM flexibility and scalability, including distances of 100km and resilient ring topologies, while lowering deployment and maintenance costs, reducing parts inventory and improving RO


SFP-Based Transponders
:
Multifunctional WDM connectivity - media conversion (multimode to single-mode, copper to fi ber), wavelength conversion, signal boosting and more
Pluggable CWDM SFP interfaces
High density 1RU system with 16 Dual-SFP channels or 1-slot module with 2 SFP data ports
Rate independent with 2R/3R signal conditioning- 100 Mbps to 2.7 Gbps
Support for SFP digital diagnostics as per SFF-8472
Compatible with Fiber Driver Passive Mux/Demux modules
Fits any Fiber Driver pluggable module chassis
Modular version fi ts any Fiber Driver pluggable module chassis

SFP-Based Cross Connects:
Multifunctional WDM connectivity - media conversion (multimode to single-mode, copper to fiber), wavelength conversion, signal boosting, signal repeating and more
Pluggable CWDM SFP interfaces
High-density 1RU system with 32 SFP ports or 1-slot module with 4 SFP data ports
Per channel selectable data rate transponder with 2R/3R signal regeneration - 100 Mbps to 2.7 Gbps
Crossbar connectivity - any port to any port, port-to-multiport, and trunk switching
Support for SFP digital diagnostics as per SFF-8472
Compatible with Fiber Driver Passive Mux/Demux modules
Modular version fi ts any Fiber Driver pluggable module chassis
IRU version supports 2 protocol independent monitoring ports

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